Here are some inks to such terms:
- debt and equity markets - link.
- fixed income - link.
- securities - link.
- derivatives - link.
They are just that - i.e., terminology
Follow the links, and, once you understand the definition
of the terms (in the context of "finance"), you will be able to find quite a lot of information about that specific definition, on Internet searches. Beware
of web sites wanting you to trade in any obscure financial markets - e.g., binary options trading
(discussed elsewhere on DC forum) or futures trading
. You can lose all your money and be made bankrupt pretty quick with those. They are just for speculative trading ("speculative" here is used as a euphemism for "gambling").
Self-education on these financial terms and their use can be obtained from reading books (e.g., a book on accountancy and finance from a second-hand bookshop, which latter tend to have lots of perfectly good old textbooks on such subjects), or visiting free course links as suggested by @rgdot
. Don't sign up for a paid course though, as that will probably lead to their signing you up for a speculative trading account and could introduce you to the full meaning of the financial term "bankrupt". Take care.
For example, I know of a Dutch guy - an economist with a PhD in economics and who lectured in economics - who apparently bankrupted himself in about 1988 by "going long" on a futures trade, on a "You can't fail with this stock" transaction.
Not sure whether he ever recovered, financially or personally. It completely ruined (stopped) his imminent marriage as well.