With a general question, comes a generic answer:
Are you sure you need to use a micro-USB cable to charge your phone? Could be that your phone uses a connector that is quite similar to, but not the same as a micro-USB connector.
Depending on the age of your phone and possibly your geo-location, you might have such a phone. In that case find out what type of connector your phone is really using and find/use the correct cable.
That is, of course, you haven't destroyed the connector in your phone already.