I presume you have gone through the usual reboot etc.
Have you tried using system restore to go back a few hours to see if they work with an older version of the registry?
Does your BIOS have USB device detection (mine says on POST screen USB Devices: 1 Keyboards, 1 Mouse, 1 Hard Disc) - if so does it still detect the devices? If it did before and doesn't now it looks like a hardware fault, if it did and still does it looks like a corruption in windows somewhere.
If not the only other thing I can suggest is a minimal fresh install of Windows on a spare small partition to check it isn't a hardware fault (it isn't impossible for USB controllers to fail).
If it tracks down to windows can you completely uninstall all USB devices including hubs and controllers and then try and rebuild from the device manager?
Also check you have no disc errors (run an offline CHKDSK on your system disk) - one of the driver files may have been damaged.