There is no one standard solution, but the closest for c++ is probably gettext.
Ah, but this isn't what I was asking! I'm sorry to be such a nuisance
The example in my OP was not from gettext, because gettext works directly with literal message strings, so it avoids using any kind of identifiers. Gettext .po files look like this:
And I am really interested in what happens with the lng files of the format
MSG_ID "Hello, world!"
There is a gettext port for Delphi, but I don't like it for several reasons. One is that it uses pre-compiled language files, so testing is needlessly technical and time-consuming (and you need a lot of testing when translating an app). Second, it's based on the rule that one source string can have only one translation - whoever came up with this design may have been a good programmer but never was a translator, believe me. Going from English to Polish, "Open" needs one translation when it's a menu item and another one when it's a dialog box title. And it is not in any way special - in fact, it's the norm. So you will understand when I say gettext sucks big time
(Unless that last design principle has improved recently, that is. And yes, I know about the idea of "domains" in gettext. As I understand it, the person responsible for deciding what goes in which domain is the programmer. But the programmer doesn't know
! The programmer cannot know that a particular term will need three different target forms in Farsi, depending on where they appear. Only the translator knows this. Gettext is silly that way.)
However, for C++ Builder (and of course it also works for Delphi), I have had reasonably good experience with the commercial product Korzh Localizer.
I know of Korzh, but it's deadly expensive, at least the source code edition. It's so expensive that I haven't even looked at it very closely yet. Could you tell me what format the language files are? Are they binary or human-readable text? Because I definitely want a mechanism where users can edit the language files themselves in a text editor, without any third-party software and without a compilation step in-between editing and testing the translation. (Plus, all these add-on translation tools are quite horrible and as a translator myself, I am quite sure their authors never actually used them to translate any app bigger than Hello world. Things like editing long strings in a ListView. Not gonna go that way.)
But I digress. What kind of (basic but efficient) loading mechanism would a C++ programmer use if he or she were not using any 3rd party libraries for the task?