My family used an index card system. It was a bit more complex than yours.
The cards were color coded for how often they needed to be done: daily, weekly, monthly, and perhaps even bi-monthly, yearly, and other time intervals. The card tray then had dividers for each day, week, month, etc. I don't remember exactly what these dividers were. 1-31 (one for each potential day of the month) should be enough if you organize your chores to no larger than 1 month intervals.
Then each day you grab the cards from the current day, do the chore, and then file them back in to the next appropriate time they need to be done. It's really efficient and works well, if you keep up on it.
I've been thinking about this index card system a lot lately and I've been wanting a todo list type program that was organized this way. Then again, it's probably only really effective if you've got the physical cards to touch and feel and get out and put back in.